SMALL INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION, TANZANIA

 
 
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MWANZA

OPPORTUNITIES

List of SMEs in Mwanza Region

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

Mwanza region is in the extreme northern part of Tanzania Mainland dominated by Africa 's largest lake, the Lake Victoria. Geographically, it lies between latitudes 1° 30' and 3° 0' south of the Equator and the longitudes 31° 45' and 34° 10' east of Greenwich.

The northern part of the region is surrounded by the waters of Lake Victoria locally known as Lake nyanza. These waters in turn separate the region from the neighbouring countries of Kenya and Uganda. To the west is Kagera region while the south and southeastern parts border shinyanga region. Mara region borders Mwanza in the northeast.

LAND AREA AND ADMINISTRATION UNITS

The total surface area occupied by Mwanza region is 35, 187 sq kms. But of this area a good 43% or 15,092 sq km is water cover dominated by Lake Victoria. This leaves only 57% or 20,095 sq km as dry land. So, in terms of land area the region is one of the smallest in Tanzania Mainland. Only Kilimanjaro and Mtwara regions are smaller. With the Mainland land area pegged at 881,289 sq km. Mwanza's share is a mere 2.3%. In terms of Mainland's total area of 942,784 sq kms Mwanza's share goes up to 3.7%

  Table 1.1: Distribution of total surface and Land Areas, by district Mwanza region.

Source:Regional Commissioner's office. Mwanza, 2002
District

Land area

(Sq kms)

Water area

(Sq Kms)

Total surface area (sq Kms)

Percentage of regional

  

Total Land
Mwanza City 425 900 1.325

3.8

2.1
Magu 3,070 1,725 4795

13.6

15.3
Ukerewe 640 5,760 6,400 18.2 3.2
Geita 6,775 1,050 7,825 22.2 33.7
Sengerema 3,335 5,482 8,817 25.1 16.6
Kwimba 3,903    3,903 11.1 19.4
Missungwi 1,947 175 2,122 6.0 9.7
Total 20,095 15,092 35,187 100.0 100.0

 

KEY POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

  Tanzania has always had a tradition of carrying out some form of human population census at regular intervals. Prior to the 2002 census three major censuses had been carried out in 1988, 1978 and 1967. Less comprehensive censuses had also been undertaken earlier in 1957 and 1948.

From these censuses certain characteristics have emerged regarding the country's population. For instance, the population growth rate is slowing with time. Between 1967 and 1998 it was 3.2 percent per annum but between 1978 and 1988 it was down to 2.8 percent. Urbanization is increasing so is population density. The Population of females relative to males continues to be higher. Illiteracy among females continues to remain higher than among males. Agriculture is still the main economic activity as sector and the major foreign exchange earner. Though life expectancy at birth continues to rise, the rates of infant mortality and material mortality are still unacceptable high Fertility is on the decline as demonstrated by falls in the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and the Total Fertility Rate (TFR). This could be because the population is now more aware of the need for family planning and that the age at first marriage has been rising. This age rose from 19 years during 1967/78 to 23 years between 1978 and 1988. Inspite of regional Variations the trends are clear.

  REGIONAL ECONOMY

Introduction

The economy in Mwanza Region is dominated by smallholder agriculture employing about 85 per cent of the region's population and complemented by an expanding fisheries sector.

The region has traditionally been one of Tanzania's main producing area for cotton. For the past two decades cotton production has declined basically due to low profitability and ineficient marketing arrangements. It is believed that fisheries activities in the region lead in terms of foreign exchange earning contribution to the regions's economy. Commercial fishing is carried out by big fishing companies using modern fishing gear and vessels. Agriculture takes second position followed by minning in recent days. the region holds a large proportion of the country's livestock; about 13 percent (District Integrated Agriculture Survey, 1998/99- National Report February 2000). The region's rural population is relatively poor and conditions are worsening due to high population density and consequent land shortage. exacerbated by erratic rainfall patterns in many parts of the region. Major food crops in the region are maize, cassava,sorghum,millet, sweet patatoes, and legumes (beans/peas) Maize, cassava and sweet patatoes constitute about 71 per cent of all food crops grown in the region. The region in most times isi unable to feed itself, food has to be imported from other regions surplus production realized in Geita and spome parts of Sengerema fail to bridge the food gap. Paddy and maize play a dual role in being food crops, which can also be sold if a surplus is generated or if cash is needed urgently. Cotton and paddy have both been major cash crops in the region over the past 50-60 years.

ROAD TRANSPORT

Mwanza as one of the country's northern most regions. Together with Mara in the east and KAgera to the west they form a ring of roads around Lake Victoria which connect to Kenya and Uganda, both which countries are follow members of the East African Community. Mwanza region is crucially placed to play a key role in the dvelopment of such a ring network around the lake. Already an all-weather tarmac trunk road connects Mwanza to Kenya Republic via Mara region. The western wing via Kagera region to the Republic of Uganda is yet to be developted to Tarmac standards.

Mwanza is strategically connected to central mainland by a trunk road into shinyanga region and Tabora to the south.

The internal network dominated by regional, district and feeder roads is discussed below:-

 MARINE TRANSPORT

The region is well served by marine transport making use of the waters of Lake Victoria which connect the region not only to Mara and Kagera regions of Tanzania but also to the neighbouring republics of Uganda and Kenya. Passengers, cargo and services are carried constantly via the lake to various parts of the region and also to other areas border the lake.

The significance of this mode of transport is highlighted by Table III,10 and III,11, which show the involvement of the Tanzania Railways corporation (TRC). It is claimed by TRC that the parastatal uses about 84% of its passenger vessels' capacity and an average of 76.1 percen of the capacity of its cargo vessels. Private marine transport mainly feries, also exist and are important inmoving passengers and cargo within the region especially between ports in Mwanza Sengerema and Geita districts.

  

  

S/N
Name of Vessel
Capacity (number of passengers)
cargo capacity (tons)
Route
1. M.V Victoria
1200
200
Mwanza-Bukoba
2. M.V Butiama
200
100
Mwanza-Ukerewe Kome Buchezi
3. M.V Serengeti
593
350
Mwanza- Bukoba
4. M.V Clarias
290
10
Mwanza-Kome-Buchezi
5. M.V Umoja   
1200
Mwanza-kemonda bay Musoma-Kisumu(kenya)
6. M.V Nyangumi (Tanker ship)   
350
Mwanza- Kisumu-(kenya)
7. MT. Ukerewe   
720
Mwanza-Musoma-Kemondo-Bay-Bukoba
8. MT Linda
Port-operation
     
9. MT. Maindi   
120
Mwanza-Nansio-Buchezi-Nyamirembe
10. MT Wimbi   
120
Mwanza-Nansio-Buchezi-Nyamirembe-Solima
Table III.10: Major lake victoria TRC Marine Transport Vessels

  

Year Passanger Ferried

cargo ferried (Tons)

1977
128,000
155,000
1978
134,000
102,000
1979
225,000
129,000
1980
315,000
219,000
1981
315,000
122,000
1982
430,000
117,000
1983
571,000
93,000
1984
619,000
111,000
1985
666,000
98,000
1986
720,000
88,000
1987
517,222
NA
1988
457,720
75,000
1989
403,792
98,500
1990
740,557
103,934
1991
720,205
108,430
1992
502,647
136,919
1993
567,531
177,070
1994
691,195
147,681
1995
711,609
179,456
1996
577,562
145,386
1997 (Estimate)
622,000
148,000

Table III.11: Performance figure for TRC Marine division for the years 1977 to 1997  

RAILWAYS TRANSPORT

The central railway line starts off in Dar es Salaam, the biggest port city in Tanzania, and wends its way to Kigoma to the west but branches at Tabora in central Tanzania northwards to Mwanza region. Mwanza City is an important and busy terminal since it is here that railway wagon ferries leave for port of Dar es Salaam as its outlet overseas. Hence, a significant part of Uganda and Mwanza region imports and exports are carried by this railway line. Cotton produced in Mwanza region is the major export crop. cattle for the beef market in Dar es Salaam are also moved along this life line passengers to Dar es Salaam from this region rely heavily on this railway transport system. Coffee from Uganda is also exported via this line.

In order to facilitate the movement of these doods services and passengers on this line, the region has a number of railway stations. These are Mwanza terminal, Mwanza South, Fela, Mantare, Bukwimba and Malya Stations.

AIR SERVICES

Mianland's third most important is in airport serves Mwanza City It can accomodate the landing of Boeing 737 aircraft. The airport is 881 air kilometres from Dar es Salaam. Charter services at the airport exist which in the year 2000/2001 were provided by the Desert Locust control Organisation. Auric air services Ltd, and Renair.

In the year 2000 Mwanza airport in international traffic accounted for 395 aircraft movements involving 2.542 pasengers on scheduled services. Non-Scheduled services involved 522 aircraft movements serving 1,631 passengers. In terms of sir freight the airport moved 110,1 tons of cargo on scheduled services Non-scheduled services moved 20,689 tones mostly fish products loaded at the airport for overseas destinations. Non-scheduled aircraft movements reached 821 in that year accounting for 2,972 passengers.

For domestic traffic in 2000 Mwanza airport passengers increased from 48,228 in 1998 to 72,508 in 1999 and 74,674 in 2000. Domestic airfreight varied from 1,667.3 tonnes in 1998 to 1089.9 tonnes in 1999 and 1,5374 tonnes in the year 2000. In addition domestic mail amounted to 205.8 tonnes in 1998, 193.1 tonnes in 1999 and 249 tonnes in 2000.

This data was supplied by the Tanzania Civil Aviation Authority through "civil Aviation Statistics of Tanzania 2000."

  TELECOMMUNICATIONS

TTCL in is the land based telephone service provider for the region. In addition there exists e-mail services and cellular telephone services provided by a number of private and semi-private telecommunicaton companies. There are Vodacom, Celtel and Mobitel. But land based telephones are still dominant.

The number of such services over the year are:-

The Tanzania Telecommunication Company Ltd also provides For Services.

  

  

TTCL
Telephone Lines
Year
Number of Lines
1990
4,993
1991
5,100
1992
5,206
1993
5,185
1994
5,290
1995
5,262
1996
5,185
1997
4,903
1998
na
1999
na
2000
na
20001
na

ENERGY

Electricity

Electricity is the power source for industries commercial premises service institutions and even domestic premises. During the 1988 Census of 292,962 households in the region 15,785 or 5.4% were supplied with electricity.

Firewood

It is claimed that the amount of total forest cover for the region is 3,374 sq kms by the year 2002 Of the region's estimed population of 2,703,603 for that year over 90% depended on firewood for domestic cooking Therefore this forest cover is under considerable presure. Estimates of roundwood requirements per capital are put as 2 cubic metres per year. Hence, in the year 2002 the region required 5.4 million cubic metres of roundwood to satisfy its demand.

Fossil Fuels

When it comes to cooking the regionals households depend on fuelwood in the form of firewood or charcoal. But when it comes to lighting some 90% of the region's households depend on Kerosene. Even in urban areas a significant proportion of residents use kerosene for lighting rather than electrcity Of course Fossil Fuels also do energize Transport, industries and various commercial establishments.

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